The information contained within the 2013 maps inventory is based on information compiled from official websites, scientific literature, U.S. Patent and Trademark Office documents, government reports and newspaper/journal articles that explicitly reference work in synthetic biology. The original maps inventory was published in 2009. Work solely in related fields such as molecular biology, systems biology or nano-biotechnology were not included. Information compiled from non-English language websites were translated using Google Translate. Hyperlinks to the translated websites are provided.
Company: For-profit organization that conducts research in synthetic biology
Companies are sub-categorized as follows:
Biological Systems Designer/Manufacturer: Company that designs and/or manufactures novel biological systems, which are often designed to output medicines, fuels and specialty chemicals
Supplier: Company that provides designers and manufacturers with component products and services (Examples of component products include oligonucleotides, genes, biochips, reagents, software packages, instrumentation and other devices. Examples of services include gene sequencing and analysis)
University: University: Institution of higher education where research in synthetic biology is conducted by faculty
Research Institution: Non-profit organization where research in synthetic biology is conducted by staff scientists
Principal Investigator: Scientist in charge of a specific synthetic biology experiment or research project at a university or research institution (To be included on the map, a principal investigator, or a credible source, must explicitly state that he/she conducts research in synthetic biology.)
Government Lab: Civilian facility where research in synthetic biology is conducted by staff scientists
Military Lab: Facility administered by the armed forces where research in synthetic biology is conducted by staff scientists and focused on enhancing national defense capabilities
Community Lab Space: Facility where members of the public can have access to a variety of resources, including laboratory space, equipment and instructional courses (Oftentimes, access is granted for a membership fee.)
Hybrid Research Institute/Policy Center: Non-profit organization where research in synthetic biology is conducted by staff scientists and policy work is conducted by social scientists
Policy & Governance: Non-profit organization where policy work is conducted by social scientists
Information for the 2013 update to the map was collected from the following sources:
“Companies,” BioChipNet, accessed April 2013, http://www.biochipnet.com/companies?from=40.
Erika Check Hayden, "Bioengineers Debate Use of Military Money," Nature 479,458 (November 2011), accessed April 2013, http://www.nature.com/news/bioengineers-debate-use-of-military-money-1.9409.
George Church and Ed Regis, Regenesis: How Synthetic Biology Will Reinvent Nature and Ourselves (New York: Basic Books, 2012).
"George M. Church's Tech Transfer, Advisory Roles, and Funding Sources,” Harvard Molecular
"Technology Group & Lipper Center for Computational Genetics, accessed April 2013, http://arep.med.harvard.edu/gmc/tech.html.
“Inventory of Synthetic Biology Products – Existing and Possible,” Synthetic Biology Project, accessed April 2013, http://www.synbioproject.org/library/inventories/applications_inventory/.
Lexis Nexus search for “synthetic biology” (June 2009 - April 2013).
“Local Groups,” DIY BIO, accessed April 2013,http://diybio.org/local.
"Maven Semantic: Synthetic Biology Database," Business Wire, accessed April 2013, http://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20111129005802/en/Maven-Semantic-Synthetic-Biology-Database.
Paul Oldham, Stephen Hall and Geoff Burton, "Synthetic Biology: Mapping the Scientific Landscape,” PLoS ONE 7 (2012); accessed April 2013, http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0034368.
"Synthetic biology companies join BIA, trade association forms new group for emerging sector," UK Bioindustry Association (BIA), accessed April 2013, http://www.bioindustry.org/newsandresources/bia-news/synthetic-biology-companies-join-bia.
"Synthetic Biology Countries," Tableau Pubic (map compiled with data from Oldham, Hall, and Burton), accessed April 2013, http://public.tableausoftware.com/views/SyntheticBiologyScientificLandscape/SyntheticBiologyCountries.
“Synthetic Biology: Labs,” OpenWetWare, accessed April 2013, http://www.openwetware.org/wiki/Synthetic_Biology:Labs.
“Teams Registered for iGEM 2012,” iGem, accessed April 2013, http://www.igem.org/Team_List?year=2012.
U.S. Patent and Trademark Office patent database search for “synthetic biology” (January 2003 - April 2012), http://appft.uspto.gov/netahtml/PTO/index.html .
Information for the original map from 2009 was collected from the following sources:
Huib de Vriend, “Constructing Life: Early Social Reflections on the Emerging Field of Synthetic Biology,” The Rathenau Institute (2006), accessed April 2013, http://www.synbiosafe.eu/uploads/pdf/Rathenau%20Constructing%20Life%202006.pdf.
Eleonore Pauwels and Ioan Ifrin, “Trends in American & European Press Coverage of Synthetic Biology,” Synthetic Biology Project, Woodrow Wilson Center (November 2008), accessed April 2013, http://www.synbioproject.org/library/publications/archive/why_scientists_should_care.
Lexis Nexus search for “synthetic biology” (January 2003 – May 2009).
Patrick Di Justo, “A Genome Shop Near You,” Wired (December 2005), accessed April 2013, http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/13.12/start.html?pg=16.
Stephen C. Aldrich, James Newcomb, and Robert Carlson, “Genome Synthesis and Design Futures: Implications for the U.S. Economy,” Bio Economic Research Associates (2007), summary accessed April 2013, http://www.bio-era.net/reports/genome.html.
“Synbiology: An Analysis of Synthetic Biology Research in Europe and North America,” European Commission (October 2005), accessed April 2013, http://www2.spi.pt/synbiology/documents/SYNBIOLOGY_Literature_And_Statistical_Review.pdf.
“Synthetic Biology,” UK Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology (January 2008), accessed April 2013, http://www.parliament.uk/documents/post/postpn298.pdf.
"Synthetic Biology: A Nest Pathfinder Initiative,” European Commission (2007), accessed April 2013, ftp://ftp.cordis.europa.eu/pub/nest/docs/5-nest-synthetic-080507.pdf.